Guernica, official name (reflecting the Basque language) Gernika, is a town in the province of Biscay, in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country, Spain.
On April 26, 1937, Guernica was bombed by Nazi Germany's Luftwaffe, in one of the first aerial bombings.
The attack inspired Pablo Picasso's painting Guernica, depicting his outrage at the attack.
The Basque Country is the name given to the home of the Basque people.
The Basque country is located in the western Pyrenees, straddling the border between France and Spain on the coast of the Bay of Biscay.
2.2 Modern history
On April 26, 1937, during the Spanish Civil War, Guernica was the scene of the bombing of Guernica by the Condor Legion of Nazi Germany's Luftwaffe and the Italian Aviazione Legionaria.
The raid was requested by Francisco Franco to aid in his overthrowing the Basque Government and the Spanish Republican government.
The town was devastated, though the Biscayan assembly and the Oak of Guernica survived.
The Bombing of Guernica, which went on continuously for three hours, is considered the beginning of the Luftwaffe doctrine of terror bombing civilian targets in order to demoralize the enemy.
Pablo Picasso painted his Guernica painting to commemorate the horrors of the bombing and René Iché made a violent sculpture the day after the bombing.
Currently, the predominant languages in the Spanish and French Basque Countries are Spanish and French, respectively. In the historical process of forging themselves as nation-states, both the Spanish and French governments have tried more or less intensely to discourage the use of Basque and its linguistic identity.
The language chosen for public education is the most obvious expression of this phenomenon, something which surely had an effect on the current status of Basque.
But under the regime of Francisco Franco, the government attempted to suppress Basque nationalism and limit the uses of the Basque language.
Even the activities of the Euskaltzaindia (Basque Language Academy) were severely curtailed.
2.5 The Spanish Civil War and the Franco period
During the Spanish Civil War, the city, and Catalonia in general, were resolutely Republican.
Many enterprises and public services were collectivised by the CNT and UGT unions.
The fall of the city on 26 January 1939, caused a mass exodus of civilians who fled to the French border. The resistance of Barcelona to Franco's coup d'état was to have lasting effects after the defeat of the Republican government.
The autonomous institutions of Catalonia were abolished, and the use of the Catalan language in public life was suppressed.
The French Basque Country, or Northern Basque Country is a region lying on the west of the French department of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques.
Since 1 January 2017, it constitutes the Basque Municipal Community presided over by Jean-René Etchegaray [fr].
Neither Basque nor any of the other regional languages in France, such as Catalan, Breton or Occitan, have official recognition in France.
According to the second article of the French Constitution, "the language of the Republic is French", and, despite several attempts to add "with respect to the regional languages that are part of our heritage" by 44 deputies in 2006, the proposal was rejected by 57 votes against and 44 in favor.
The right of a people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms.
「カタロニア左翼共和党Republican Left of Catalonia」
The Republican Left of Catalonia is a pro-Catalan independence, social-democratic political party in the Spanish autonomous community of Catalonia, with a presence also in Valencia, the Balearic Islands and the French department of Pyrénées-Orientales (Northern Catalonia).
It is also the main sponsor of the independence movement from France and Spain in the territories known as Catalan Countries, focusing in recent years on the creation of a Catalan Republic in Catalonia proper.
エルンスト・チェ・ゲバラErnesto Che Guevara