(I have NO intention to insult Muammar Gaddafi nor Saddam Hussein.)
(In fact, Muammar Gaddafi is a great man.)
[BBC]November 19, 2022
ジャーナリストのカショギ暗殺に関し、カショギ氏の婚約者が裁判を起こしていた。サウジアラビアの事実上のリーダー --- 皇太子ムハンマド・ビン・サルマーン--- には免責特権・不逮捕特権を認める、と米国は決定した。
The US has determined that Saudi Arabia's de facto leader - Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman - has immunity from a lawsuit filed by murdered journalist Jamal Khashoggi's fiancé.
Justice Department lawyers said that as "the sitting head of a foreign government," the crown prince "enjoys head of state immunity from the jurisdiction of US courts as a result of that office."
"The doctrine of head of state immunity is well established in customary international law," Justice Department lawyers said.
"This is a legal determination made by the State Department under longstanding and well-established principles of customary international law," a spokesperson for the White House National Security Council said in a written statement.
"It has nothing to do with the merits of the case."
Underlying all this is Washington's desire to improve its poor relations with the Saudi leadership.
It's no secret that MBS and President Biden dislike each other and the Saudis' recent refusal to pump more oil to lower US fuel prices was taken as a snub in Washington. Added to that, the Saudis have an increasingly warm relationship with both Russia and China.
Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi[b] (1942 – 20 October 2011) was a Libyan revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
He was the de facto leader of Libya from 1969 to 2011, first as Revolutionary Chairman of the Libyan Arab Republic from 1969 to 1977 and then as the Brotherly Leader of the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya from 1977 to 2011.
Initially ideologically committed to Arab nationalism and Arab socialism, he later ruled according to his own Third International Theory.
Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937[a] – 30 December 2006) was an Iraqi politician who served as the fifth president of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.
A leading member of the revolutionary Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party, and later, the Baghdad-based Ba'ath Party and its regional organization, the Iraqi Ba'ath Party—which espoused Ba'athism, a mix of Arab nationalism and Arab socialism—Saddam played a key role in the 1968 coup (later referred to as the 17 July Revolution) that brought the party to power in Iraq.
Manuel Antonio Noriega Moreno (February 11, 1934 – May 29, 2017)[a] was a Panamanian dictator, politician and military officer who was the de facto ruler of Panama from 1983 to 1989.
An authoritarian ruler who amassed a personal fortune through drug trafficking operations, he had long standing ties to United States intelligence agencies before the U.S. invasion of Panama removed him from power.
Noriega's mugshot after his surrender to U.S. forces
ロナルドレーガン国際空港Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport
Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport, also known as National Airport, Washington National, Reagan National Airport or simply Reagan, is in Arlington, Virginia, next to the border of Washington, D.C.
The airport's original name was Washington National Airport.
Congress adopted the present name to honor President Ronald Reagan in 1998.
Yasuhiro Nakasone was a Japanese politician who served as Prime Minister of Japan and President of the Liberal Democratic Party from 1982 to 1987.
He was a member of the House of Representatives for more than 50 years.
Nakasone was best known for his close relationship with U.S. President Ronald Reagan, popularly called the "Ron-Yasu" friendship.
Nakasone sought a more equal relationship with the United States, and said:
"President Reagan is the pitcher and I'm the catcher. When the pitcher gives the signs, I'll co-operate unsparingly, but if he doesn't sometimes follow the catcher's signs, the game can't be won".
Grand Cordon of the Order of the Chrysanthemum (29 April 1997)
Collar of the Order of the Chrysanthemum (29 November 2019; posthumously)
Junior First Rank (29 November 2019; posthumously)
[Congress.gov]105th Congress (1997-1998)
S.1575 - A bill to rename the Washington National Airport located in the District of Columbia and Virginia as the "Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport".
[Washington Post]February 5, 1998
Congress Votes for Reagan Airport
The Senate voted 76 to 22 to change the name to Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport.
The House version of the bill, passed 240 to 186, did not include "Washington" in the title, but House leaders said they expect to make their bill conform to the Senate's and send it on to the president.
The Panama Canal (Spanish: Canal de Panamá) is an artificial 82 km (51 mi) waterway in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean and divides North and South America.
Colombia, France, and later the United States controlled the territory surrounding the canal during construction.
France began work on the canal in 1881, but stopped because of lack of investors' confidence due to engineering problems and a high worker mortality rate.
The United States took over the project on May 4, 1904, and opened the canal on August 15, 1914.
The US continued to control the canal and surrounding Panama Canal Zone until the 1977 Torrijos–Carter Treaties provided for handover to Panama.
After a period of joint American–Panamanian control, the canal was taken over by the Panamanian government in 1999.
It is now managed and operated by the government-owned Panama Canal Authority.