Don't you know who is Galileo Galilei?
Every elementary-school-child knows who is Galileo Galilei.
And, you do not know who is Galileo Galilei?
The U.S. got independence from Europe!
The U.S. got independence from aristocratism!
The U.S. got independence from class society
Definition of 'class society'
a society in which class distinctions are influential
Collins English Dictionary. Copyright c HarperCollins Publishers
Very very in short, there are 4-types of Christian.
(2) Orthodox-Church = Greek-Orthodox-Church = Russian-Orthodox-Church
(3) Church of England
(4) Puritan (= our America)
Very very in short, there have been wars among Western-Roman-Empire, Eastern-Roman-Empire and Ottoman-Empire.
(1) Holy-Roman-Empire = Western-Roman-Empire = Roman-Catholic = the House of Habsburg = Austrian Empire = Austro-Hungarian Empire
(2) Byzantine-Empire = Eastern-Roman-Empire = Russian-Empire = Orthodox-Church = Greek-Orthodox-Church = Russian-Orthodox-Church
(3) British = Church of England
(4) Our America (The United States) = Puritan
On 15 February 1990, in a speech delivered at the Sapienza University of Rome, Cardinal Ratzinger (later Pope Benedict XVI) cited some current views on the Galileo affair as forming what he called "a symptomatic case that permits us to see how deep the self-doubt of the modern age, of science and technology goes today".[
Some of the views he cited were those of the philosopher Paul Feyerabend, whom he quoted as saying "The Church at the time of Galileo kept much more closely to reason than did Galileo himself, and she took into consideration the ethical and social consequences of Galileo's teaching too.
On 31 October 1992, Pope John Paul II expressed regret for how the Galileo affair was handled, and issued a declaration acknowledging the errors committed by the Catholic Church tribunal that judged the scientific positions of Galileo Galilei, as the result of a study conducted by the Pontifical Council for Culture
In March 2008, the head of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, Nicola Cabibbo, announced a plan to honour Galileo by erecting a statue of him inside the Vatican walls.
In December of the same year, during events to mark the 400th anniversary of Galileo's earliest telescopic observations, Pope Benedict XVI praised his contributions to astronomy.[
Rene Descarteswas a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
Dubbed the father of modern western philosophy, much of subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings, which are studied closely to this day.
His best known philosophical statement is "Cogito ergo sum" (I think, therefore I am), found in part IV of Discours de la methode (1637; written in French but with inclusion of "Cogito ergo sum") and §7 of part I of Principles of Philosophy (1644; written in Latin).[
Despite frequent moves, he wrote all his major work during his 20+ years in the Netherlands, where he managed to revolutionize mathematics and philosophy.[
In 1633, Galileo was condemned by the Catholic Church, and Descartes abandoned plans to publish Treatise on the World, his work of the previous four years.
Nevertheless, in 1637 he published part of this work in three essays:
Les Meteores (The Meteors), La Dioptrique (Dioptrics) and La Geometrie (Geometry), preceded by an introduction, his famous Discours de la methode (Discourse on the Method).[
In it, Descartes lays out four rules of thought, meant to ensure that our knowledge rests upon a firm foundation.
Descartes discovered an early form of the law of conservation of mechanical momentum (a measure of the motion of an object), and envisioned it as pertaining to motion in a straight line, as opposed to perfect circular motion, as Galileo had envisioned it.
He outlined his views on the universe in his Principles of Philosophy.
Cartesian coordinate system
A Cartesian coordinate system is a coordinate system that specifies each point uniquely in a plane by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances to the point from two fixed perpendicular directed lines, measured in the same unit of length.
The invention of Cartesian coordinates in the 17th century by Rene Descartes (Latinized name: Cartesius) revolutionized mathematics by providing the first systematic link between Euclidean geometry and algebra.
Francis Bacon (22 January 1561 - 9 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author.
Bacon's seminal work Novum Organum was influential in the 1630s and 1650s among scholars, in particular Sir Thomas Browne, who in his encyclopaedia Pseudodoxia Epidemica (1646-72) frequently adheres to a Baconian approach to his scientific enquiries.
The Idols (Idola)
Idols of the Tribe (Idola tribus)
"Idols of the Tribe are rooted in human nature itself and in the very tribe or race of men. For people falsely claim that human sense is the measure of things, whereas in fact all perceptions of sense and mind are built to the scale of man and not the universe."
An example might be the common historical astronomical assumption that planets move in perfect circles.
Idols of the Cave (Idola specus)
These "belong to the particular individual. For everyone has (besides vagaries of human nature in general) his own special cave or den which scatters and discolours the light of nature. Now this comes either of his own unique and singular nature; or his education and association with others, or the books he reads and the several authorities of those whom he cultivates and admires, or the different impressions as they meet in the soul, be the soul possessed and prejudiced, or steady and settled, or the like; so that the human spirit (as it is allotted to particular individuals) is evidently a variable thing, all muddled, and so to speak a creature of chance
This type of idol stems from the particular life experiences of the individual
Bacon himself gives the example of Aristotle, "who made his natural philosophy a mere slave to his logic".
Idols of the Theatre (Idola theatri)
"Lastly, there are the Idols which have misguided into men's souls from the dogmas of the philosophers and misguided laws of demonstration as well; I call these Idols of the Theatre, for in my eyes the philosophies received and discovered are so many stories made up and acted out stories which have created sham worlds worth of the stage."
These idols manifest themselves in the unwise acceptance of certain philosophical dogmas, namely Aristotle's sophistical natural philosophy (named specifically in Aphorism 63) which was corrupted by his passion for logic, and Plato's superstitious philosophy, which relied too heavily on theological principles.
[CNN]January 15, 2008
Galileo protest halts pope's visit
Pope Benedict XVI has canceled a planned visit to a prestigious Italian university after a protest by academics and students attacked his views on Galileo, the Vatican confirmed Tuesday.
The pope had been due to give a speech at La Sapienza university in Rome Thursday to open its academic year.
However, the visit drew criticism from academics at the university who signed a letter demanding that the trip be called off. Separately, students protested outside the university, carrying banners insisting the university is a lay institution and the pope is not welcome.
In the letter, academics -- pointing to a speech the pope gave at the same university as a cardinal in 1990 -- claimed he condones the 1633 trial and conviction of the scientist Galileo for heresy.
The astronomer had argued that the Earth revolved around the Sun, in contradiction to church teachings at the time, and he was forced to renounce his findings publicly.
In comments made 15 years ago when he was still a cardinal, Pope Benedict is reported to have called the trial "reasonable and just."
During his speech, the pope -- then Cardinal Ratzinger -- quoted an Austrian philosopher Paul Feyerabend, saying, "At the time of Galileo, the church remained more loyal (or faithful) to reason than Galileo himself.
By Nicole Winfield
Good heavens: Vatican rehabilitating Galileo
Church recasting the most famous victim of its Inquisition as a man of faith
The Vatican is recasting the most famous victim of its Inquisition as a man of faith, just in time for the 400th anniversary of Galileo's telescope and the U.N.-designated International Year of Astronomy next year.
The church denounced Galileo's theory as dangerous to the faith, but Galileo defied its warnings. Tried as a heretic in 1633 and forced to recant, he was sentenced to life imprisonment, later changed to house arrest.
The Church has for years been striving to shed its reputation for being hostile to science, in part by producing top-notch research out of its own telescope.
In 1992, Pope John Paul II declared that the ruling against Galileo was an error resulting from "tragic mutual incomprehension."
But that apparently wasn't enough. In January, Benedict canceled a speech at Rome's La Sapienza University after a group of professors, citing the Galileo episode and depicting Benedict as a religious figure opposed to science, argued that he shouldn't speak at a public university.
The Galileo anniversary appears to be giving the Vatican new impetus to put the matter to rest. In doing so, Vatican officials are stressing Galileo's faith as well as his science, to show the two are not mutually exclusive.